Creates a 3-dimensional sail mold.
Spiral initially defines the sail's three-dimensional shape as a ‘molded' surface without any wind pressure or load applied. Precise control over all aspects of a sail's shape allows a broad range of mainsails, genoas, jibs and asymmetric spinnakers to be designed. Every dimensional aspect of the sail can be adjusted both in horizontal and vertical axes.
Rig and sail CAD modeling.
Desman creates a complete rig/sail model in a three-dimensional environment. In Desman, North designers can specify mast size, rigging position, rigging attachment points at the deck and trimming locations. The modeled sail/rig system incorporates the mechanical properties of the spars, standing rigging, running rigging and sails in terms of moments of inertia, sail and spar surface area, materials stiffness and resistance to stretch. Later in the process, Membrain (described later) uses the Desman model to determine deformation under load for the sail and every piece of standing and running rigging, right down to stretch in the sheets and halyards.
Defines the structure of a sail.
3D Layout is used to define the structure of a sail in terms of yarn layouts, panel layouts, tape layouts, yarn density, and/or film types. Output from 3D Layout is used to shape 3DL molds or provide seam curves for paneled sails. All yarns are plotted in the same 3-dimensional space they will assume when sailing. 3D shapes are translated into panel layouts for downwind sails. 3D Layout also has powerful analytical tools which can be used independently or in conjunction with Membrain.
Applies wind pressure to 3-dimensional sail mold and provides sail forces.
Using Flow, wind pressure is introduced over the sail's three-dimensional “mold” to produce a pressure field on the sail's surface. The pressure varies over the surfaces based on the size and shape of the sail and the strength and direction of the air flow. The resulting pressure field is then linked directly to Membrain for finite element analysis. Flow also reports the drive and moments developed by sails, which can later be used by either the North Sails VPP or other VPPs for sail performance analysis.
Balances wind pressure, sail shape and rig forces.
Membrain takes the sail/rig model from Desman and applies pressure fields from Flow, deforming the mast and sail as a single unified structure. As the sail/rig structure is deformed, the shape of the sail changes, so Membrain then links back to Flow to acquire new pressure fields for the deformed surface. This changes the sail shape in Membrain yet again, so the process is repeated until there is stable balance between pressure and rig/sail deformation. Membrain can be used to test sail shapes, optimize mast design and rig tune, create sail shapes to test in North VPP, check loads for designers, and more.
Membrain applies pressure to the integrated rig/sail system and then iterates the results back to Flow until pressure and sail deformation achieves a stable balance